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Table of Contents
Basic Terms of Psychology
The conscious mind involves all of the such things that you are currently aware of and thinking about.
Memories that are outside of conscious awareness.
The subconscious mind is a considered as data-bank for everything, which is not in your conscious mind. It stores your beliefs, your previous experience, your memories, your skills. Everything that you have seen, done or thought is also there.
The id is the impulsive (and unconscious) part of our psyche which responds directly and immediately to basic urges, needs, and desires.
The ego operates based on the reality principle, which works to satisfy the id’s desires in a manner that is realistic and socially appropriate.
The superego is the component of personality composed of the internalized ideals that we have acquired from our parents and society.
The libido is part of the id and is the driving force.
Memory: Memory is defined as the ability to store and retrieve
information over time.
Retrieval is finding information in memory and bringingit to conscious awareness (Retrieval of the Information).
Emotion: Emotion is the sudden, brief and involuntary mental and physiological feelings that direct our attention and guide our behaviour to situations that are seen as personally relevant.
Attitude: Attitude refers to the relatively enduring positive or negative beliefs, feelings, or intended behaviour towards people and things.
Fundamentals of Psychology PDF in 2022 And Introduction to Psychology
It uses scientific methods to study how, when, where and why we feel, think and act the way we do, and uses psychological interventions to influence people.
Mental process or the mind consists of sensations, thoughts and feelings. Behaviour is observable actions; moving, talking, activities of cells.
The Four Basic Goals of Psychology
No doubt Fundamentals of Psychology PDF in 2022 have also listed with some goals;
1. Description of behaviour by accurately naming and classifying the behaviour.
2. Explanation of behaviour by stating the causes in order to explain the behaviour.
3. Prediction is the ability to foretell behaviour.
4. Changing of behaviour is the ability to influence or control the behaviour.
History and Approaches to Psychology
Highlighted below are the pioneers of modern psychology and the perspectives or Schools of Thought they used to study and explain behaviour;
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) is the father of Psychology. He published “Principles of Physiological Psychology” in 1873 and opened the first experimental psychological laboratory in 1879 at the University of Leipzig, Germany. He founded the Structuralism school of thought. He studied the structures of conscious experience, emotion, sensation and thought through introspection.
William James (1842-1910) was the first American psychologist, and he pioneered the Functionalism school of thought to study the functions of the mind. He wrote “Principles of Psychology” in 1890.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) introduced psychoanalytic school and focused on the influence of childhood psychosexual experience, unconscious motive, use of defence mechanism, sex and aggression on behaviour and the treatment of psychopathology.
Gestalt psychologists like Wolfgang Kohler, Max Wertheimer and Kurt Koffka focused on the perception of whole units rather than sum of their parts. Jean Piaget, Hermann Ebbinghaus, Noam Chomsky and George Miller are also part of the Cognitive school of thought that study how mental processes, cognition, judgement, language, memory and learning influence behaviour.
John B. Watson (1878 -1958) referred to psychology as the study of observable behaviour. Other founding behaviourists are B.F. Skinner and Ivan Pavlov. The Behavioural school of thought studies the influence of learning, context and the environment on behaviour.
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) and Carl Roger (1905-1987) founded Humanistic school of thought and studied human potentials, motivation, free-will, self-actualization, and unconditional positive regard.
Gordon Allport, Solomon Asch and Leon Festinger among the pioneers of the Social-Cultural school of thought that studies how social situations and people’s cultural influence behaviour.
The Physiological school of thought studies how behaviour is influenced by the structures and functions of the brain and other systems in the body.
The Evolutionary school of thought
These uses the principles of evolution and genetics to explain behaviour.
Eclectic is a combination of information from the different perspectives to study the same behaviour.
Applied Psychology is the use of psychological principles to solve practical problems. It also refers to the various specializations and professions that represent what psychologists do. Some of the specialized fields/careers in Psychology:
1. Clinical Psychology explores the causes, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of different types of behavioural and emotional disorders.
2. Industrial/Organisational Psychology studies workplace’s behaviour and applies psychological principles to enhance performance and well-being of employees, and to ensure profitability of organisations.
3. Social Psychology focuses on the influence of social situation on people’s behaviour.
4. Engineering Psychology uses psychological principles to design user-friendly products and equipment. It considers human factors in producing ergonomic machines to ensure optimal performance and comfort. 5. Developmental Psychology studies the physical, cognitive, social and psychological changes in people throughout their lifespan, from conception to old age.
6. Consumer Psychology applies psychological principles to product packaging and marketing methods to influence consumer behaviour and purchase decisions.
7. Environmental Psychology studies how crowding, designs and environmental factors influence behaviour.
8. Physiological Psychology studies the interaction of the brain, genetics and the body systems on behaviour.
9. Educational Psychology helps students with social, emotional and academic issues. It also assist to develop instructional methods needed for academic excellence.
10. Forensic Psychology applies psychological principles in legal and justice system to prevent, investigate, and solve crime, and give expert opinion in court cases.
11. Counselling Psychology helps people to adjust, adapt, and cope with personal and interpersonal problems in areas like education, marriage and career.
12. Cognitive Psychology studies perception, thinking, reasoning, language, memory and decision making.
13. Sports Psychology uses psychological theories and knowledge to enhance athletic performance.
14. Positive Psychology seeks to identify and promote those qualities that can lead to one’s fulfillment in life.
15. Political Psychology explains political behaviour and uses psychological principles to influence voters.
Fields Related to Psychology
As a Psychology student and Your best guider, I include Fundamentals of Psychology PDF in 2022. These are fields of study that have relationship with psychology. They are highlighted below;
- Social Sciences study human’s interaction with others social factors. Courses in this category include Social Work, Sociology, Economics, Political Science, Anthropology, and Geography.
- Medical Sciences are courses that have to do with the brain and other systems in the body. They include Medicine, Psychiatry, Physiology, Neuroscience, etc.
- Environmental disciplines like Architecture, Urban Planning, Interior Decoration and Designing, etc.
- Courses in the Humanities like Philosophy, Ethics, Law, Religion, Linguistics, Communication, etc.
Other relevant disciplines are Engineering, Marketing, Computer Science, Statistics, Finances, Management, etc.
1. Nature and Nurture.
2. Development from Conception to Death.
3. Physical Development.
4. Cognitive Development.
5. Social Development.
Explain socialization by attachment, parenting style and interaction with others discuss the psychosocial stages of development.
Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory focuses on the psychosocial challenges between personal impulses and the social world that people face as they grow. He identified eight developmental dilemmas.
1.Stage: Trust vs Mistrust Age: Birth-18 months Task: Infants learn to trust others and the world based on attachment and bonding others give through care and attention. If infants’ parents and caregivers are responsive and sensitive to their needs, they may develop trust and grow to trust people later in life. But if infants are neglected, they may become suspicious of people and situations.
2. Stage: Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt Age: 11/ -3 years Task: Toddlers start to walk, talk and explore. Balancing their freedom with their parents’ and siblings’ wishes can lead to conflicts. If the caregivers encourage exploration, toddlers will develop a sense of independence. But if toddlers are punished for talking or exploring, they may think independence is bad and feel ashamed becoming doubtful of their abilities.
3. Stage: Initiative vs Guilt Age: 3 – 5 years Task: Preschoolers want to do things their ways, help at home, make friends and overcome feelings of guilt about doing so. If this initiative is encouraged, they will develop the ability to plan and initiate new things. But, if discouraged,they may feel uncomfortable or guilty and may be unable to plan their future.
4. Stage: Industry vs Inferiority Age: 6 – 12 years Task: Competence at school and friendship. When children enjoy school, make friends with other children and successfully complete their school work, they will develop a feeling of industry but if they have difficulty
competing and completing their work or lack support for industrious behaviour, children may feel inferior and incompetent .
5. Stage: Identity vs Role Confusion Age: 12 – 19 years Task: Adolescents seek to establish basic social and occupational identity in order to be seen as friendly, focused and loyal. This will help them develop positive selfconcept and identity. If they are unsuccessful relating with others, they may experience role confusion, resulting in having low self-esteem and becoming socially withdrawn.
6. Stage: Intimacy vs Isolation Age: 20 – 34 years Task: Young adults strive to pursue a career path, maintain relationships, establish intimacy, fall in love and become successful. If otherwise, they will have a sense of isolation. Key social agents are close friends, lovers, spouses, and professional colleagues. They seek intimacy by developing loving and meaningful relationships. But if they cannot find intimacy, they will feel isolated and have relationships that are impersonal (not deep).
7. Stage: Generativity vs Stagnation Age: 35 – 64 years Task: During middle adulthood, individuals tend to develop worthwhile lives rather than focusing on self-interest only. They will achieve generativity when they nurture and guide their children or by close relationships with children of other families or friends, or by mentoring at work and helping others. Lack of involvement may lead to a feeling of stagnation for having done nothing for the younger ones or for not being established in a career.
8. Stage: Integrity vs Despair Age: 65 years and above Task: At old age, individuals impart wisdom on members of the society and when they look back and feel contented about how they have lived, what they have accomplished and whether they have had a productive and happy experience, they will have a feeling of satisfaction and integrity. But if all they can remember about their earlier life events are filled with regrets, disappointment, unfulfilled promises, unrealised goals, series of crises and problems, individuals will have a feeling of regret, hopelessness and despair.
Successful resolution of these dilemmas produces healthy development and positive personality traits. But unsuccessful handling of the psychosocial problems may make one anxious and develop psychological problems.
2. Trait Perspective
3. Psychoanalytic Perspective
4. Humanistic Perspective
5. Learning Perspective
6. Personality Assessment
Why I include Personality in Fundamentals of Psychology PDF in 2022?
Personality is defined as an individual’s unique and relatively stable patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaviour.
Trait, psychoanalytic, humanistic and learning perspectives are the four major theoretical models that attempt to describe, explain and predict personality.
Trait approach studies and describes individual differences, and predicts behaviour.
Traits are personality characteristics or habits that are generally stable over time and across situations. Traits determine how one think, feel and behave.
Extroversion versus introversion: Friendly, talkative sociable, assertive, active, energetic, excitement-seeking or outgoing versus quiet, reserved, loner, passive or shy.
The Psychoanalytic Perspective
Sigmund Freud’s (1940) Psychoanalysis stresses the influence of the unconscious motive, early
psychosexual childhood experience, the use of defence mechanism and the importance of sex and aggression on personality development. Freud’s theories are quite interesting, outlandish and controversial.
- Unconscious is the part of the mind that is beyond awareness. These usually unknown impulses and desires are expressed in disguised form through free associations, dreams, slips of the tongue, or apparent mistakes.
Structure of the Mind: Id, Ego and Superego
Freud used an iceberg to describe the mind and stated that the interactions and conflicts among the three components (id, ego, and superego) create personality.
1. Id is the primitive biological drive and unconscious structure ruled by the pleasure principle and is followed by the desire for instant gratification of our sexual and aggressive impulses. Persons dominated by their id are usually narcissistic and impulsive. The id encourages to
play and not work, tell lies, make fun of others, abuse alcohol/drugs, have unprotected sex, watch television all day, engage in risky behaviour or act without thinking!
2. Ego is the executive part of the mind that makes decision and directs the individual to express sexual and aggressive impulses in socially acceptable rational ways. It is based on the reality principle. The ego make compromises between the id, superego, and the environment to delay gratification until the right time, method and place, and also uses defense mechanism to cope. A strong ego produces a healthy personality.
3. Superego is the conscience that is built on our moral values and religious belief. It is based on ideal principle. It judges our thoughts and actions and makes us feel guilty for doing or thinking about something wrong and feel good for wanting or doing something good.
Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development
Freud (1905/53) states that personality is formed during the first five years of life through excess gratification or frustration by feeding, toilet training and early sexual experiences. He listed five age-related psychosexual developmental stages. Each stage has potentials for fixation and conflicts between parents and child, arising as a child seeks pleasure from different body areas that are associated with sexual feelings.
Anxiety, according to Freud, is caused by the conflictbetween the pleasure demands of the id and moral standard of superego.
Ego-Defence mechanisms are used to alter or deny reality unconsciously in order to reduce tension or anxiety.
- Denial is refusing to accept a particular anxietyprovoking event or piece of information that is clear to others (lying!) A smoker uses denial if he refuses to accept that smoking causes lung cancer and heart disease.
- Repression is the deliberate forgetting of thoughts, feelings, wishes or experiences that are unacceptable or threatening. A rape victim may deliberately repress and block the painful memories and thoughts of the event. ? Rationalization involves providing socially acceptable reasons for an inappropriate behaviour (making excuses!). A job applicant that failed an interview test may say the company employed only those with ‘connection’. A tenant that refused to pay his house rent could claimed that the landlord did not come to collect it on time
- Displacement is the transferring of anger to a less threatening person or object, away from the source of the anxiety. A wife was offended by her husband. She might transfer the aggression to her subordinates or customers by picking up an argument with them.
- Projection is by falsely attributing your own unacceptable feelings, traits or thoughts to another individual or object. A promiscuous wife who accuses her faithful husband of cheating on her.
- Sublimation is the expression of sexual or aggressive impulses through indirect, socially acceptable means. A street fighter that is now a boxer. A person who likes making fun of others, working as a stand-up comedian.
The most important and key step in Fundamentals of Psychology PDF in 2022 is Learning.
1. Processes of Learning
2. Non-Associative Learning
3. Classical Conditioning
4. Operant Conditioning
5. Social or Observational Learning
B. F. Skinner (1938) defined operant conditioning as learning that results from the consequence of the behavior which may increases or decreases the likelihood of that behavior occurring again.
- Behaviour is the action or response of an individual.
- Consequence is the event that follows the behaviour.
- Reinforcement is a consequence that serves as an incentive for a behaviour to occur again.
- Punishment decreases behaviour or reduces the rate of unwanted response. The use of punishment should be weighed against the possible adverse effects as it gives no information on a more appropriate behaviour. Concepts describing Operant Conditioning.
- Positive reinforcement increases the probability of a response occurring multiple times by presenting a pleasant reward after the response. A student studied well, passed an examination and was given scholarship by the faculty dean. He will always study!
- Negative reinforcement removes something that is unpleasant or avoids noxious stimulus, thereby strengthens a response that does the removal or avoidance. You put off the loud noise from the TV by muting the volume. She is not given any chores whenever he parents see her reading. You study hard to avoid carryover .
- Positive punishment weakens a response by presenting something unpleasant after the response. Caning, kneeling and other corporal punishments for coming late to school.
- Negative punishment is the removal of something that is pleasant because of an undesirable behaviour in order to suppress the behaviour. You lost 10 marks due to a wrong answer. Your father refused to give you money because you failed. You will lose your seat if you make noise in the class.
- Extinction occurs if after a period of time reinforcement or punishment is not given for the behaviour.
- Primary reinforcements have innate reinforcing values that are not learned. Food, water, sleep, touch, sex, pleasure, affection, etc.
- Secondary reinforcements are neutral stimuli that acquire reinforcing qualities by association with primary reinforcements. Money, grades, praise, prizes, toys, etc.
- Shaping is the process of giving reinforcement to every behaviour that leads up to (successive approximations of) the desired behaviour. Punishment is not good for shaping.
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